Note: Most (not all) of these articles have a hyperlink to a pdf of the article.

Wells, G. L., Smalarz, L, and Smith, A. M. (2015). ROC analysis of lineups does not measure underlying discriminability and has limited value. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition.

Wells, G. L., Smith, A. M., and Smalarz, L., (2015). ROC analysis of lineups obscures information that is critical for both theoretical understanding and applied purposes. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition.

Wells, G. L., Yang, Y., & Smalarz, L. (2015).  Eyewitness identification: Bayesian information gain, base-rate effect equivalency curves, and reasonable suspicion. Law and Human Behavior, 29, 99-122.

Smalarz, L., & Wells, G. L. (2015). Contamination of eyewitness self-reports and the mistaken identification problem. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24, 120-124.

Wells, G. L., Steblay, N. K., & Dysart, J. E. (2015). Double-bind photo-lineups using actual eyewitnesses: An experimental test of a sequential versus simultaneous lineup procedure. Law and Human Behavior, 39, 1-14.

 

Smalarz, L., & Wells, G. L. (2014). Post-identification feedback to eyewitnesses impairs evaluators’ abilities to discriminate between accurate and mistaken testimony. Law and Human Behavior, 38, 194-202.

 

Steblay, N. M., Wells, G. L. & Douglass, A. L. (2014). The eyewitness post-identification feedback effect 15 years later: Theoretical and policy implications. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 20, 1-18.

 

Smalarz, L. & Wells, G. L. (2014). Confirming feedback following a mistaken identification impairs memory for the culprit. Law and Human Behavior, 38, 283-292..

 

Wells, G. L. (2014). Eyewitness identification: Probative value, criterion shifts, and policy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 11-16.

 

Wells, G. L., Wilford, M. M., & Smalarz, L. (2013). Forensic science testing: The forensic filler-control method for controlling contextual bias, estimating error rates, and calibrating analysts’ reports. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 2, 53-56.

 

Wells, G. L., Steblay, N. K., & Dysart, J. (2012). Eyewitness identification Reforms: Are suggestiveness-induced hits and guesses true hits? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 264-271.

 

Quinlivan D. S., Neuschatz, J. S., Douglass, A., Wells, G.L, & Wetmore, S. (2012).  Disambiguating the accessibility hypothesis: The effect of post-identification feedback, delay, and suspicion using accurate witnesses. Law and Human Behavior, 36, 206-214.

 

Charman, S. D., & Wells, G. L. (2012). The moderating effect of ecphoric experience on post-identification feedback: A critical test of the cues-based inference conceptualization. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26, 243-250.

 

Quinlivan, D. S., Neuschatz, D.S., Wells, G. L., Cutler, B. L., McClung, J. E., & Harker, D. (2012). Do pre-admonition suggestions moderate the effect of the unbiased-lineup instructions? Legal and Criminological Psychology, 17, 165-176.

 

Olson, E. A., & Wells, G. L. (2012). The alibi-generation effect: Alibi generation experience influences alibi evaluation. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 17, 151-164.

 

Madon, S., Guyll, M., Scherr, K.C., & Wells, G.L. (2012). Temporal discounting: The differential effect of distal and proximal consequences on confession decisions. Law and Human Behavior, 36, 13-20.

 

Smalarz, L. and Wells, G. L. (2012). Eyewitness identification evidence: Scientific advances and the new burden on trial judges. Court Review, 48, 14-21.

 

Brewer, N., & Wells, G. L. (2011). Eyewitness identification. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 24-27.

 

Steblay, N.K., Dysart, J. & Wells, G. L. (2011). Seventy-two tests of the sequential lineup superiority effect: A meta-analysis and policy discussion. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 17, 99-139.

 

Wells, G. L., & Penrod, S. D. (2011). Eyewitness identification research: Strengths and weaknesses of alternative methods. In B. Rosenfeld, & S. D. Penrod (Eds.), Research methods in forensic psychology. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

 

Charman, S. D. & Wells, G. L. (2011). The dud effect: Highly dissimilar fillers increase confidence in lineup identifications. Law and Human Behavior, 35, 479-500.

 

Quinlivan, D. S., Wells, G. L., & Neuschatz, J. (2010). Is manipulative intent necessary to mitigate the eyewitness  post-identification feedback effect?  Law and Human Behavior, 34, 186–197.

 

Wilford, M. M., & Wells, G. L. (2010). Does facial processing prioritize change detection? Change blindness illustrates costs & benefits of holistic processing. Psychological Science, 21, 1611-1615.

 

Wells, G. L., & Quinlivan, D. S. (2009). The eyewitness post-identification feedback effect: What is the function of flexible confidence estimates for autobiographical events? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 751-762.

 

Wells, G. L., & Quinlivan, D. S. (2009). Suggestive eyewitness identification procedures and the  Supreme Court's reliability test in light of eyewitness science: 30 years later. Law and Human Behavior, 33, 1-24.

 

Clark, S. E., & Wells, G. L. (2008). On the diagnosticity of multiple-witness identifications. Law and Human Behavior, 32, 406–422.

 

Wells, G. L. (2008). Field experiments on eyewitness identification: Towards a better understanding of pitfalls and prospects. Law and Human Behavior, 32, 6-10.

 

Charman, S. D. & Wells, G. L. (2008). Can eyewitnesses correct for external influences on their lineup identifications? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14, 5-20.

 

Sauer, J. D., Brewer, N., & Wells, G. L. (2008). Is there a magical time boundary for diagnosing eyewitness identification accuracy in sequential lineups? Legal and Criminological Psychology, 13, 123-135.

 

Wells, G. L. (2008). Theory, logic, and data: Paths to a more coherent eyewitness science. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 853-859.

 

Brewer, N., Weber, N., Clark, A., & Wells, G. L. (2008).  Distinguishing accurate from inaccurate eyewitness identifications with an optional deadline procedure.  Psychology, Crime and Law, 14, 397-414.

 

Wells, G. L. & Hasel, L. E. (2007). Facial composite production by eyewitnesses. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 6-16.

 

Keast, A., Brewer, N., & Wells, G. L. (2007). Children’s metacognitive judgments in an eyewitness identification task. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97, 286-314.

 

Charman, S. D., & Wells, G. L. (2007 ). Eyewitness lineups: Is the appearance-change instruction a good idea? Law and Human Behavior, 31, 3-22.

 

Hasel, L. E., & Wells, G. L. (2007). Catching the bad guy: Morphing composite faces helps. Law and Human Behavior, 31, 193-208.

 

Wells, G. L., Memon, A, & Penrod, S. (2006). Eyewitness evidence: Improving its probative value. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 7, 45-75.

 

Brewer, N., & Wells, G. L. (2006). The confidence-accuracy relation in eyewitness identification: Effects of lineup instructions, foil similarity, and target-absent base rates. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 12, 11-30.

 

Wells, G. L., Charman, S. D., & Olson, E. A. (2005). Building face composites can harm lineup identification performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 11, 147-157.

 

Bradfield, A. L. & Wells, G. L. (2005). Not the same old hindsight bias: Outcome information distorts a broad range of retrospective judgments. Memory and Cognition, 33, 120-130.

 

Semmler, C., Brewer, N., & Wells, G. L. (2004). Effects of postidentification feedback on eyewitness identification and nonidentification. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 334-346.

 

Weber, N., Brewer, N., Wells, G. L., Semmler, C, & Keast, A. (2004). Eyewitness identification accuracy and response latency: The unruly 10-12 second rule. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 10, 139-147.

 

Olson, E. A., & Wells, G. L. (2004). What makes a good alibi? A proposed taxonomy. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 157-176.

 

Wells, G. L. & Olson, E. (2003). Eyewitness identification.  Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 277-295.

 

Wells, G. L. (2003). Murder, extra-marital affairs, and the issue of probative value. Law and Human Behavior, 27, 623-628.

 

Wells, G. L., Olson, E., & Charman, S. (2003). Distorted retrospective eyewitness reports as functions of feedback and delay. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 9, 42-52.

 

Turtle, J.W., Lindsay, R.C.L. & Wells, G.L. (2003). Best practice recommendations for eyewitness evidence procedures: New ideas for the oldest way to solve a case. The Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services, 1, 5-18.

 

Wells, G. L., Olson, E., & Charman, S. (2002).  Eyewitness identification confidence.  Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 151-154. [Reprinted in Current directions in social psychology (2004), Upper Sadle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.]

 

Wells, G. L. & Olson, E. (2002). Eyewitness identification: Information gain from incriminating and exonerating behaviors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8, 155-167.

 

Bradfield, A. L., Wells, G.L, & Olson, E.A. (2002). The damaging effect of confirming feedback on the relation between eyewitness certainty and identification accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 112-120.

 

Bushman, B. J., & Wells, G. L. (2001).  Narrative impressions of the literature:  The availability bias and the corrective properties of meta-analytic approaches.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1123-1130.

 

Wells, G. L. (2001).  Eyewitness lineups:  Data, theory, and policy.  Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 7, 791-801.

 

Wells, G. L. & Olson, E. A. (2001). The other-race effect in eyewitness identification: What do we do about it? Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 7, 230-246.

 

Wells, G. L., Malpass, R. S., Lindsay, R.C.L., Fisher, R.P., Turtle, J. W., & Fulero, S. (2000).  From the lab to the police station: A successful application of eyewitness research.  American Psychologist, 55, 581-598.

 

Bradfield, A. L. & Wells, G. L. (2000).  The perceived validity of eyewitness identification testimony:  A test of the five Biggers criteria.  Law and Human Behavior, 24, 581-594.

 

Wells, G. L. & Bradfield, A. L. (1999). Distortions in eyewitnesses' recollections: Can the postidentification feedback effect be moderated? Psychological Science, 10, 138-144.

 

Wells, G. L., & Windschitl, P. D. (1999).  Stimulus sampling in social psychological experimentation.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1115-1125.

 

Wells, G. L. (1999).  Improving eyewitness identification evidence.  Psychological Science Agenda, 12, 8-10.

 

Wells, G. L., & Bradfield, A. L. (1999). Measuring the goodness of lineups: Parameter estimation, question effects, and limits to the mock witness paradigm. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, 27-40.

 

Bushman, B. J. & Wells, G. L. (1998).  Trait aggressiveness and hockey penalties: Predicting hot tempers on the ice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 969-974.

 

Wells, G. L. & Bradfield, A. L. (1998). “Good, you identified the suspect:” Feedback to eyewitnesses distorts their reports of the witnessing experience. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 360-376.

 

Windschitl, P. D., & Wells, G. L. (1998).  The alternative outcomes effect.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1411-1423.

 

Wells, G. L., Small, M., Penrod, S. J., Malpass, R. S., Fulero, S. M., & Brimacombe, C. A. E. (1998). Eyewitness identification procedures: Recommendations for lineups and photospreads. Law and Human Behavior, 22, 603-647.

 

Windschitl, P. D. & Wells, G. L. (1997). Behavioral consensus information affects people’s inferences about population traits. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 148-153.

 

Windschitl, P. D. & Wells, G. L. (1996). Measuring psychological uncertainty: Verbal vs numeric methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2, 343-364.

 

Windschitl, P. D. & Wells, G. L. (1996). Base rates do not constrain non-probability judgments. Behavoral and Brain Sciences, 19, 40-41.

 

Luus, C. A. E., Wells, G. L., & Turtle, J. W.  (1995).  Child eyewitnesses:  Seeing is believing.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 317-326.

 

Wells, G. L. & Leippe, M. R. (1995). Prospects and problems with partial identification. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 22, 373-385.

 

Wells, G. L. & Seelau, E. P. (1995). Eyewitness identification: Psychological research and legal policy on lineups. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law , 1, 765-791

 

Wells, G. L. (1995) Scientific study of witness memory: Implications for public and legal policy. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law , 1, 726-731.

 

Seelau, S. M. & Wells, G. L. (1995). Applied eyewitness research: The other mission. Law and Human Behavior, 19, 317-322.

 

Luus, C. A. E., & Wells, G. L.  (1994).  The malleability of eyewitness confidence:  Co-witness and perseverance effects.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 714-723.

 

Wells, G. L., Luus, C. A. E., & Windschitl, P. D.  (1994).  Maximizing the utility of eyewitness identification evidence.  Current Directions in Psychological Science 3, 194-197. [Reprinted in Annual Editions: Social Psychology (1996). Guilford, CT: Dushkin Pub.]

 

Wells, G. L. (1993). What do we know about eyewitness identification? American Psychologist, 48, 553-571.

 

Wells, G. L., Rydell, S. M., & Seelau, E. P.  (1993).  On the selection of distractors for eyewitness lineups.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 835-844.

 

Wright, E. F., Rule, B. G., Ferguson, T. J., & McGuire, G. R., & Wells, G. L.  (1992). Misattribution of dissonance and behavior‑consistent attitude change.  Canadian Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 24, 456-464.

 

Wells, G. L.  (1992).  Naked statistical evidence of liability:  Is subjective probability enough? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 739‑752.

 

Johnson, R., Rennie, R., & Wells, G. L.  (1991).  Outcome trees and baseball:  A study of omission effects.  Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 324‑340.

 

Luus, C. A. E., & Wells, G. L.  (1991).  Eyewitness identification and the selection of distracters for lineups.  Law and Human Behavior, 15, 43‑57.

 

Wells, G. L.  (1990).  Identifying Ivan:  A case study in legal psychology.  Social Behavior, 13, 110‑121.

 

Wells, G. L., & Luus, C. A. E.  (1990).  The diagnosticity of a lineup should not be confused with the diagnostic value of non‑lineup evidence.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 511‑516.

 

Wells, G. L., & Luus, E.  (1990).  Police lineups as experiments:  Social methodology as a framework for properly‑conducted lineups.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16, 106-­117.

 

Lindsay, R. C. L., Wells, G. L., & O'Connor, F.  (1989).  Mock juror belief of accurate and inaccurate eyewitnesses: A replication.  Law and Human Behavior, 13, 333‑340.

 

Gavanski, I., & Wells, G. L.  (1989).  Counterfactual processing of normal and exceptional events.  Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 314‑325.

 

Wells, G. L., & Gavanski, I.  (1989).  Mental simulation of causality.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 161‑169.

 

Wright, E. F., & Wells, G. L.  (1988).  Is the attitude‑attribution paradigm suitable for testing the dispositional bias?  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14, 183‑190.

 

Wells, G. L., & Turtle, J. W.  (1987).  Eyewitness testimony:  Current knowledge and emergent controversies.  Canadian Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 19, 363‑388.

 

Wells, G. L.  (1987).  Behavioral scientists in courts and corrections.  Canadian Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 19, 391‑392.

 

Wells, G. L., Taylor, B. R., & Turtle, J. W.      (1987).  The undoing of scenarios.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 421‑430.

 

Wells, G. L., & Turtle, J. W.  (1986).  Eyewitness identification:  The importance of lineup models.  Psychological Bulletin, 99, 320‑329.

 

Wells, G. L.  (1986).  Expert psychological testimony:  Empirical and conceptual analyses of effects.  Law and Human Behavior, 10, 83‑96.

 

Wells, G. L.  (1985).  Verbal descriptions of faces from memory:  Are they diagnostic of identification accuracy?  Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 619‑626.

 

Wells, G. L., Wrightsman, L. S., & Meine, P.  (1985).  The timing of the defense opening statement:  Don't wait until the evidence is in.  Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 15, 758-­772.

 

Wells, G. L.  (1985).  The conjunction error and the representativeness heuristic.  Social Cognition, 3, 266‑279.

 

Wright, E. F., & Wells, G. L.  (1985).  Does group discussion attenuate the dispositional bias? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 15, 531‑546.

 

Lindsay, R. C. L., & Wells, G. L.  (1985).  Improving eyewitness identification from lineups:  Simultaneous versus sequential lineup presentations.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 556-­564.

 

Wells, G. L., & Lindsay, R. C. L.  (1985).  Methodological notes on the accuracy‑confidence relationship in eyewitness identifications.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 413‑419.

 

Wells, G. L.  (1985).  Experimental psychology and the courtroom.  Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 4, 363‑374.

 

Wells, G. L., & Hryciw, B.  (1984).  Memory for faces:  Encoding and retrieval operations.  Memory and Cognition, 12, 338‑344.

 

Wells, G. L., Enzle, M. E., & Hoffman, C.  (1984).  Self versus other‑referent processing at encoding and retrieval.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 10, 574‑584.

 

Wells, G. L.  (1984).  The psychology of lineup identifications.  Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 14, 89‑103.

 

Wells, G. L.  (1984).  Do the eyes have it?  More on expert eyewitness testimony.  American Psychologist, 39, 1064‑1065.

 

Wells, G. L., & Murray, D. M.  (1983).  What can psychology say about the Neil vs. Biggers criteria for judging eyewitness identification accuracy?  Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 347-362.

 

Petty, R. E., Wells, G. L., Heesacker, M., Cacioppo, J. T., & Brock, T. C.  (1983).  The effects of recipient posture on persuasion:  A cognitive response analysis.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 209‑222.

 

Wells, G. L., & Ronis, D.  (1982).  Discounting and augmentation:  Is there anything special about the number of causes?  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 566‑572.

 

Wells, G. L.  (1982).  Attribution and reconstructive memory.  Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18, 447‑463.

 

Murray, D., & Wells, G. L.  (1982).  Does knowledge that a crime was staged affect eyewitness performance?  Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 12, 42‑53.

 

Wells, G. L., & Leippe, M. R.  (1981).  How do triers of fact infer the accuracy of eyewitness identifications?  Memory for peripheral detail can be misleading.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 682‑687.

 

Wells, G. L., Ferguson, T. J., & Lindsay, R. C. L.  (1981).  The tractability of eyewitness confidence and its implication for triers of fact.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 688‑696.

 

Lindsay, R. C. L., Wells, G. L., & Rumpel, C.  (1981).  Can people detect eyewitness identification accuracy within and between situations?  Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 79-89.

 

Rule, B. G., & Wells, G. L.  (1981).  Experimental social psychology in Canada:  A look at the seventies.  Canadian Psychology, 22, 69‑84.

 

Wells, G. L. (1980). Eyewitness behavior:  The Alberta Conference.  Law and Human Behavior, 4, 237‑242.

 

Lindsay, R. C. L., & Wells, G. L.  (1980).  What price justice?  Exploring the relationship between lineup fairness and identification accuracy.  Law and Human Behavior, 4, 303‑314.

 

Wells, G. L., Lindsay, R. C. L., & Tousignant, J. P.  (1980).  Effects of expert psychological advice on human performance in judging the validity of eyewitness testimony.  Law and Human Behavior, 4, 275‑286. 

 

Wells, G. L., & Petty, R. E.  (1980).  The effects of head movement on persuasion:  Compatibility and incompatibility of responses.  Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 1, 219‑230.

 

Wells, G. L.  (1980).  Asymmetric attributions for compliance:  Reward vs. punishment.  Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 16, 47‑60.

 

Wells, G. L., & Lindsay, R. C. L.  (1980).  On estimating the diagnosticity of eyewitness nonidentifications.  Psychological Bulletin, 88, 776‑784.

 

Ferguson, T. J., & Wells, G. L.  (1980).  The priming of mediators in causal attribution.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 461‑470.

  

Wells, G. L., Leippe, M. R., & Ostrom, T. M.  (1979).  Guidelines for empirically assessing the fairness of a lineup.  Law and Human Behavior, 3, 285‑293.

 

Wells, G. L., Lindsay, R. C. L., & Ferguson, T. J.  (1979).  Accuracy, confidence, and juror perceptions in eyewitness identification.  Journal of Applied Psychology 64, 440‑448.

 

Wells, G. L.  (1978).  Applied eyewitness testimony research:  System variables and estimator variables.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1546‑1557.

 

Leippe, M. R., Wells, G. L., & Ostrom, T. M.  (1978).  Crime seriousness as a determinant of accuracy in eyewitness identification.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 345‑351.

 

Wells, G. L., & Harvey, J. H.  (1978).  Naive attributors' attributions and predictions:  What is informative and when is an effect an effect?  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 483‑490.

 

Wells, G. L., Petty, R. E., Harkins, S. G., Kagehiro, D., & Harvey, J. H.  (1977).  Anticipated discussion of interpretation eliminates actor‑observer differences in the attribution of causality. Sociometry, 40, 247‑253.

 

Wells, G. L., & Harvey, J. H.  (1977).  Do people use consensus information in making causal attributions?  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 279‑293.

 

Wells, G. L.  (1976).  Attitude change validity:  Reply to Hendrick and Bukoff.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 1076‑1077.

 

Wells, G. L.  (1976).  Reassessing the validity of laboratory‑produced attitude change.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 1062‑1067.

 

Petty, R. E., Wells, G. L., & Brock, T. C.  (1976).  Distraction can enhance or reduce yielding to propaganda:  Thought disruption versus effort justification.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 874‑884.