Carpenter, S. K., Rahman, S., & Perkins, K. (in press). The effects of prequestions on classroom learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied.


Toftness, A. R., Carpenter, S. K., Geller, J., Lauber, S., Johnson, M., & Armstrong, P. I. (in press). Instructor fluency leads to higher confidence in learning, but not better learning. Metacognition & Learning.


Carpenter, S. K., Rahman, S., Lund, T. J. S., Armstrong, P. I., Lamm, M. H., Reason, R. D., & Coffman, C. R. (in press). Students' use of optional online reviews and their relationship to summative assessment outcomes in introductory biology. CBE Life Sciences Education.


Carpenter, S. K. (in press). Spacing effects in learning and memory. In J. T. Wixted & J. H. Byrne (Eds.), Learning and memory: A comprehensive reference. Academic Press.


Carpenter, S. K., & Toftness, A. R. (2017). The effect of prequestions on learning from video presentations. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 6, 104-109. [pdf]


Endres, T., Carpenter, S., Martin, A., & Renkl, A. (2017). Enhancing learning by retrieval: Enriching free recall with elaborative prompting. Learning & Instruction, 49, 13-20. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & Yeung, K. L. (2017). The role of mediator strength in learning from retrieval. Journal of Memory & Language, 92, 128-141. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Mickes, L., Rahman, S., & Fernandez, C. (2016). The effect of instructor fluency on students' perceptions of instructors, confidence in learning, and actual learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 22, 161-172. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Lund, T. J. S., Coffman, C. R., Armstrong, P. I., Lamm, M. H., & Reason, R. D. (2016). A classroom study on the relationship between student achievement and retrieval-enhanced learning. Educational Psychology Review, 28, 353-375. [pdf]


Butler, A. C., & Carpenter, S. K. (2015). Separating myth from reality in education: Introduction to the special issue. Educational Psychology Review, 27, 563-565. [pdf]


Kelly, J. W., Carpenter, S. K., & Sjolund, L. A. (2015). Retrieval enhances route knowledge acquisition, but only when movement errors are prevented. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 41, 1540-1547. [pdf]


Rawson, K. A., Vaughn, K. E., & Carpenter, S. K. (2015). Does the benefit of testing depend on lag, and if so, why? Evaluating the elaborative retrieval hypothesis. Memory & Cognition, 43, 619-633. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K. (2014). Improving student learning in low-maintenance and cost-effective ways. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 3, 121-123. [pdf]


Mullaney, K. M., Carpenter, S. K., Grotenhuis, C. K., & Burianek, S. (2014). Waiting for feedback helps if you want to know the answer: The role of curiosity in the delay-of-feedback benefit. Memory & Cognition, 42, 1273-1284. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K. (2014). Spacing and interleaving of study and practice. In V. A. Benassi, C. E. Overson, & C. M. Hakala (Eds.), Applying the science of learning in education: Infusing psychological science into the curriculum (pp. 131-141). American Psychological Association. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Wilford, M. M., Kornell, N., & Mullaney, K. M. (2013). Appearances can be deceiving: Instructor fluency increases perceptions of learning without increasing actual learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 1350-1356. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & Mueller, F. E. (2013). The effects of interleaving vs. blocking on foreign language pronunciation learning. Memory & Cognition, 41, 671-682. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Lohse, K. R., Healy, A. F., Bourne, L. E. Jr., & Clegg, B. A. (2013). External focus of attention improves performance in a speeded aiming task. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 2, 14-19. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K. (2012). Testing enhances the transfer of learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 279-283. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Cepeda, N. J., Rohrer, D., Kang, S. H. K., & Pashler, H. (2012). Using spacing to enhance diverse forms of learning: Review of recent research and implications for instruction. Educational Psychology Review, 24, 369-378. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K. (2012). Effects of testing on learning. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning (pp. 1095-1097). New York: Springer. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & Kelly, J. W. (2012). Tests enhance retention and transfer of spatial learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 443-448. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Sachs, R. E., Martin, B., Schmidt, K., & Looft, R. (2012). Learning new vocabulary in German: The effects of inferring word meanings, type of feedback, and time of test. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 81-86. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & Olson, K. M. (2012). Are pictures good for learning new vocabulary in a foreign language? Only if you think they are not. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 38, 92-101. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K. (2011). Semantic information activated during retrieval contributes to later retention: Support for the mediator effectiveness hypothesis of the testing effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 37, 1547-1552. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & Vul, E. (2011). Delaying feedback by three seconds benefits retention of face-name pairs: The role of active anticipatory processing. Memory & Cognition, 39, 1211-1221. [pdf]


Kang, S. H., Pashler, H., Cepeda, N. J., Rohrer, D., Carpenter, S. K., & Mozer, M. C. (2011). Does incorrect guessing impair fact learning? Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 48-59. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K. (2009). Cue strength as a moderator of the testing effect: The benefits of elaborative retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 35, 1563-1569. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Pashler, H., & Cepeda, N. J. (2009). Using tests to enhance 8th grade students' retention of U. S. history facts. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 760-771. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Pashler, H., Wixted, J. T., & Vul, E. (2008). The effects of tests on learning and forgetting. Memory & Cognition, 36, 438-448. [pdf]


Pashler, H., Rohrer, D., Cepeda, N. J., & Carpenter, S. K. (2007). Enhancing learning and retarding forgetting: Choices and consequences. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 187-193. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & Pashler, H. (2007). Testing beyond words: Using tests to enhance visuospatial map learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 474-478. [pdf]


Wixted, J. T., & Carpenter, S. K. (2007). The Wickelgren power law and the Ebbinghaus savings function. Psychological Science, 18, 133-134. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Pashler, H., Cepeda, N. J., & Alvarez, D. (2007). Applying the principles of testing and spacing to classroom learning. In D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society (p. 19). Nashville, TN: Cognitive Science Society.


Carpenter, S. K., Pashler, H., & Vul, E. (2006). What types of learning are enhanced by a cued recall test? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 826-830. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & DeLosh, E. L. (2006). Impoverished cue support enhances subsequent retention: Support for the elaborative retrieval explanation of the testing effect. Memory & Cognition, 34, 268-276. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & DeLosh, E. L. (2005). Application of the testing and spacing effects to name-learning. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 619-636. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K. (2005). Some neglected contributions of Wilhelm Wundt to the psychology of memory. Psychological Reports, 97, 63-73. [pdf]