Kelly, J. W., Carpenter, S. K., & Sjolund, L. A. (in press). Retrieval enhances route knowledge acquisition, but only when movement errors are prevented. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition.


Rawson, K. A., Vaughn, K. E., & Carpenter, S. K. (in press). Does the benefit of testing depend on lag, and if so, why? Evaluating the elaborative retrieval hypothesis. Memory & Cognition.


Carpenter, S. K. (2014). Improving student learning in low-maintenance and cost-effective ways. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 3, 121-123. [pdf]


Mullaney, K. M., Carpenter, S. K., Grotenhuis, C. K., & Burianek, S. (2014). Waiting for feedback helps if you want to know the answer: The role of curiosity in the delay-of-feedback benefit. Memory & Cognition, 42, 1273-1284. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K. (2014). Spacing and interleaving of study and practice. In V. A. Benassi, C. E. Overson, & C. M. Hakala (Eds.), Applying the science of learning in education: Infusing psychological science into the curriculum (pp. 131-141). American Psychological Association. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Wilford, M. M., Kornell, N., & Mullaney, K. M. (2013). Appearances can be deceiving: Instructor fluency increases perceptions of learning without increasing actual learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 1350-1356. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & Mueller, F. E. (2013). The effects of interleaving vs. blocking on foreign language pronunciation learning. Memory & Cognition, 41, 671-682. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Lohse, K. R., Healy, A. F., Bourne, L. E. Jr., & Clegg, B. A. (2013). External focus of attention improves performance in a speeded aiming task. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 2, 14-19. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K. (2012). Testing enhances the transfer of learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 279-283. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Cepeda, N. J., Rohrer, D., Kang, S. H. K., & Pashler, H. (2012). Using spacing to enhance diverse forms of learning: Review of recent research and implications for instruction. Educational Psychology Review, 24, 369-378. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K. (2012). Effects of testing on learning. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning (pp. 1095-1097). New York: Springer. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & Kelly, J. W. (2012). Tests enhance retention and transfer of spatial learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 443-448. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Sachs, R. E., Martin, B., Schmidt, K., & Looft, R. (2012). Learning new vocabulary in German: The effects of inferring word meanings, type of feedback, and time of test. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 81-86. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & Olson, K. M. (2012). Are pictures good for learning new vocabulary in a foreign language? Only if you think they are not. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 38, 92-101. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K. (2011). Semantic information activated during retrieval contributes to later retention: Support for the mediator effectiveness hypothesis of the testing effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 37, 1547-1552. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & Vul, E. (2011). Delaying feedback by three seconds benefits retention of face-name pairs: The role of active anticipatory processing. Memory & Cognition, 39, 1211-1221. [pdf]


Kang, S. H., Pashler, H., Cepeda, N. J., Rohrer, D., Carpenter, S. K., & Mozer, M. C. (2011). Does incorrect guessing impair fact learning? Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 48-59. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K. (2009). Cue strength as a moderator of the testing effect: The benefits of elaborative retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 35, 1563-1569. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Pashler, H., & Cepeda, N. J. (2009). Using tests to enhance 8th grade students' retention of U. S. history facts. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 760-771. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Pashler, H., Wixted, J. T., & Vul, E. (2008). The effects of tests on learning and forgetting. Memory & Cognition, 36, 438-448. [pdf]


Pashler, H., Rohrer, D., Cepeda, N. J., & Carpenter, S. K. (2007). Enhancing learning and retarding forgetting: Choices and consequences. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 187-193. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & Pashler, H. (2007). Testing beyond words: Using tests to enhance visuospatial map learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 474-478. [pdf]


Wixted, J. T., & Carpenter, S. K. (2007). The Wickelgren power law and the Ebbinghaus savings function. Psychological Science, 18, 133-134. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., Pashler, H., Cepeda, N. J., & Alvarez, D. (2007). Applying the principles of testing and spacing to classroom learning. In D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society (p. 19). Nashville, TN: Cognitive Science Society.


Carpenter, S. K., Pashler, H., & Vul, E. (2006). What types of learning are enhanced by a cued recall test? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 826-830. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & DeLosh, E. L. (2006). Impoverished cue support enhances subsequent retention: Support for the elaborative retrieval explanation of the testing effect. Memory & Cognition, 34, 268-276. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K., & DeLosh, E. L. (2005). Application of the testing and spacing effects to name-learning. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 619-636. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K. (2005). Some neglected contributions of Wilhelm Wundt to the psychology of memory. Psychological Reports, 97, 63-73. [pdf]


Carpenter, S. K. (2002). Cognitive process perspectives on timesharing. In E. D. Heggestad, S. K. Carpenter, W. G. O'Shea, E. L. DeLosh, & B. A. Clegg, Timesharing: Its future implications for the Navy (pp. 25-34). Contract No. DAAH04-96-C-0086. Research Triangle Park, NC: U. S. Army Research Office.